By Coel Hellier
This article offers quite a few illustrations of the saw variability of cataclysmic variable stars. It offers a transparent rationalization and thorough updated review of this phenomenon at a degree available to the complex novice or undergraduate scholar.
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Additional info for Cataclysmic variable stars
2) is a symmetry transformation of the Schrodinger ¨ equation. All this is nothing but the well known minimum coupling algorithm, pµ → pµ − eAµ The reason that this reinterpretation of gauge transformations is acceptable is that the Quantum Mechanical phase is not a directly measurable quantity. It is now clear that electromagnetism can be interpreted as a Quantum Mechanical local gauge theory. This time it is the local phase of the wave function which is the physical degree of freedom that depends on its spacetime position.
It was also seen that one of the obstacles was the point spacetime concept ingrained in these theories. For the past few decades Quantum Gravity schemes as also string theory have broken out of this limitation. Let us ﬁrst consider string theory. We begin with the important work of T. Regge in the ﬁfties [87, 96, 97], in which he mathematically analysed using techniques like analytically continuing the angular momentum into the complex plane, particle resonances. These resonances seem to fall along a straight line plot, with the angular momentum being proportional to the square of the mass.
However a suitable mixture yields both the photon of electromagnetism and the Z ◦ characterizing weak interactions. This theory therefore combines electromagnetic and weak interactions and is incorporated in the SU(2) XU(1) group . An important diﬀerence between the weak forces on the one hand and QED and QCD on the other is that the intermediate particles of the weak interactions, the W and Z Bosons are not massless, but rather have large masses ∼ 100GeV . This is characteristic of the fact that the weak charge is not invariably conserved and moreover has an extremely short range ∼ 10−15 cms.