British Civilization: An Introduction (1998) by John Oakland

By John Oakland

British Civilization presents a accomplished creation to modern Britain, together with primary and native govt, the financial system and undefined, the legislations, media, arts, schooling and faith. This fourth variation is totally revised and up-to-date to incorporate sections on British attitudes, the 1997 election and New hard work.

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The old pragmatic methods of innovation, which illustrate the British tendency to muddle through difficulties without long-term planning or fundamental reform, may no longer be sufficient for an era in which specialized education and training, high-technology competence and a need to respond to international competition are the main determinants. Britain is still seen among export markets as traditional, ‘historical’, backward-looking and conventional, despite Labour government rhetoric to create a ‘new, young and modern’ society.

More pit closures have occurred and the future of the coal industry is uncertain. Electricity generation and distribution is now privatized and mainly provided by coal-, gas-and oil-fired power stations, in addition to a small amount of hydro-electricity. But 27 per cent of electricity is produced by thirteen nuclear power stations of various types. Conservative governments originally encouraged the growth of nuclear power to satisfy Britain’s energy needs. But further expansion is unlikely and a partial privatization of the nuclear industry occurred in 1996.

5 Waterloo International train terminal, London (Jeremy Horner/The Hutchison Library) and Virgin Atlantic, that run scheduled and charter passenger services on domestic and international routes. All are controlled by the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA), an independent body that regulates the industry and air traffic control, and which may be privatized. The airlines also provide air cargo and freight services. There are 142 licensed civil aerodromes in Britain, varying considerably in size. Heathrow and Gatwick Airports outside London are the largest.

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