By Gianfranco Bertone
A rare discovery has lately shaken the principles of Cosmology and Particle Physics, sparking a systematic revolution that has profoundly changed our knowing of our Universe and that's nonetheless faraway from over. Pioneering astronomers within the Twenties and Nineteen Thirties had already spotted suspicious anomalies within the movement of celestial our bodies in far away galaxies and clusters of galaxies, however it wasn't till the overdue twentieth century that the clinical group used to be faced with an impressive end: the Universe is stuffed with an unknown, elusive substance that's essentially diversified from whatever we now have ever visible with our telescopes or measured in our laboratories. it truly is referred to as darkish topic, and it constitutes probably the most urgent demanding situations of recent technological know-how. during this publication, aimed toward the overall reader with an curiosity in technology, the writer illustrates in non-technical phrases, borrowing ideas and ideas from different branches of paintings and literature, the far-reaching implications of this discovery. It has resulted in a world race to spot the character of this mysterious kind of topic. We will be approximately to witness a pivotal paradigm shift in Physics, as we got down to attempt the life of darkish subject debris with a wide range of experiments, together with the massive Hadron Collider at CERN, in addition to with a brand new iteration of Astroparticle experiments underground and in area.
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Extra resources for Behind the Scenes of the Universe - From the Higgs to Dark Matter
It is by comparing the distribution of matter in numerical simulations with that observed in the universe that we can be conﬁdent of having a cosmological model that accurately describes the distribution of matter in the universe. With an entire universe stocked on our hard drive, we can perform many interesting studies. We can, for instance, calculate how dark matter is distributed in galaxies or study the statistical properties of other astrophysical structures. It is thanks to numerical simulations that we can estimate the distribution of dark matter in a galaxy like our own, and get a handle on two crucial ingredients for dark matter searches: Lurking in the dark 33 • The distribution of dark matter at the Galactic center.
5). When I ﬁrst saw it, I found it poetically naive, and it made me think of a picture in “ASCII art” that my brother and I purchased at a local fair in the mid 1980s, with arrays of black letters and symbols forming our portrait. Numerical simulations have improved immensely since these pioneering attempts, thanks to a dramatic increase in computing power. 6, which was run at the Max Planck Society’s Supercomputing Center in Garching, Germany. This has a computing power ten million times larger than the old IBM 360-95 used by the Toomre brothers.
2: An example of gravitational lensing: the light of distant galaxies is distorted by a galaxy cluster. What Father Angelucci saw wasn’t an optical illusion, nor a hallucination. It was a mirage: the same optical phenomenon that makes phantom oases appear in the desert and ghost ships ﬂoat in the air, as in the old legend of the Flying Dutchman, just more extreme. 2). But before discussing these gravitational mirages, we need ﬁrst to understand the physical origin of Fata Morganas and other atmospheric mirages.