Attention and Effort (Experimental Psychology) by Daniel Kahneman

By Daniel Kahneman

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Extra resources for Attention and Effort (Experimental Psychology)

Sample text

A neuropsychological assessment produces information that is concerned with how the brain of an individual is functioning. Currently, this primarily concerns cognitive and pathological attributes. The only reliable method of obtaining this information is by means of scientific methodology and instrumentation. Neuropsychological tests now constitute the primary psychometric instrumentation for research and assessment. Although a century has been devoted to the development of psychological and neuropsychological tests, the exact relationship between brain functioning and test design remains largely unexamined.

Brain Chemistry Level The next level is chemical that provides an understanding of brain hormones and the mechanisms of impulse movement along a nerve and synaptic transmission. It is directed by genetics. Genetics Level The most primary organic level is genetics, which is basic to the organization of the brain and its functioning. The Interaction of Levels All of these levels of science contribute to an understanding of the brain’s functioning. In addition, there is a great overlap between levels.

At some point, the attribute must be represented by a physical entity or it cannot be measured. In psychometrics, this physical form is usually some type of test. Quantification permits the application of formal or mathematical analysis to the psychological process. The attribute must exist as an attribute of a physical entity or it cannot be measured. As such, the aspects of instruments will now be elaborated. Sampling the Attribute The initial process performed by an instrument is to physically sample an attribute of an object.

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