Atlas of North American English: Phonetics, Phonology and by Professor William Labov, Sharon Ash, Associate Professor of

By Professor William Labov, Sharon Ash, Associate Professor of Linguistics Charles Boberg

"The Atlas of North American English" presents the 1st total view of the pronunciation and vowel structures of the dialects of the U.S. and Canada. The Atlas re-defines the nearby dialects of yank English at the foundation of sound alterations energetic within the Nineteen Nineties and attracts new limitations reflecting these adjustments. it's in keeping with a mobilephone survey of 762 neighborhood audio system, representing the entire urbanized parts of North the US. it's been built by way of invoice Labov, one of many top sociolinguists of the area, with his colleagues Sharon Ash and Charles Boberg. The Atlas includes a broadcast quantity followed through an interactive CD-ROM. beginning January 2006, the print and multimedia content material can also be to be had on-line. it's a mixed variation: ebook and Multimedia CD-ROM. the broadcast quantity includes: 23 chapters that re-define the geographic obstacles of North American dialects and hint the impression of gender, age, schooling, and town dimension at the growth of sound switch; findings that express a dramatic and lengthening divergence of English in North the US; 139 4 color maps that illustrate the nearby distribution of phonological and phonetic variables around the North American continent; and one hundred twenty 4 color vowel charts of person audio system. The interactive multimedia CD-ROM vitamins the broadcast articles and maps via supplying: a knowledge base with measurements of greater than 100,000 vowels and suggest values for 439 audio system; the Plotnik software for mapping all of the person vowel structures; prolonged sound samples of all North American dialects; and interactive purposes to augment school room displays. the net in basic terms model presents print and multimedia content material. the net merely model bargains: simultaneous entry to the print and multimedia content material to all clients within the university/library community; a much wider collection of interactive info, maps, and audio samples that may be repeatedly up to date; scholars with concurrent entry to investigate fabric for lecture room assignments.

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Extra resources for Atlas of North American English: Phonetics, Phonology and Sound Change

Example text

The densely settled surrounding area consists of contiguous incorporated or census designated places having either a population of 2,500 or more, a population density of 1,000 persons per square mile, a closely settled area containing a minimum of 50 percent of the population, or a cluster of at least 100 housing units. Further details on the definition of an Urbanized Area may be found in the Census Reports. The composition of each Urbanized Area is shown on maps in the series of census reports 1990 CPH-2: Population and Housing Unit Counts.

U:/, which became /uw/ and then modern /aw/. The same principle continues to operate upon diphthongal /iy, ey, uw, ow/ that resulted from the seventeenth-century diphthongization of the long vowels raised by the Great Vowel Shift. As the binary notation indicates, there is a difference in quality between the first and second mora of the long vowels in initial position. Under the operation of the Upper Exit Principle, the nuclei of these vowels shift to the non-peripheral track. The operation of either the Lower and Upper Exit Principles can be the initiating event of a chain shift, since they both create vacant slots in the original subsystem.

Mergers are also unidirectional processes, governed by two closely related principles (Labov 1994: 311–313): Gardeʼs Principle Mergers are irreversible by linguistic means. Herzogʼs Corollary Mergers expand at the expense of distinctions. The first principle concerns the sequence of events in the history of any one dialect. The second principle is the spatial reflection of these events as they affect neighboring dialects. In any case, a merger will have the same effect as an exit movement in altering the functional economy of a subsystem.

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