Astrocytes in Brain Aging and Neurodegeneration by Hyman M. Schipper

By Hyman M. Schipper

256 pages, sixty seven figures, 6 tables, hardcover This monograph is the 1st of its type to concentration particularly at the position of astroglia in aging-related human neurodegenerative issues and experimental versions of CNS senescence and degeneration. As such, this quantity within the Neuroscience Intelligence Unit sequence represents a singular and significant contribution to the fundamental and medical neuroscience literature. The chapters are grouped into 3 sections: I. Biology of Astrocytes. The chapters during this part will represent a accomplished dialogue of the recognized capabilities of astroglia within the mammalian CNS and the jobs those cells may possibly play within the pathophysiology of neurological problems. II. Astrocytes in Human mind Senescence and Neurodegenerative problems. during this part, the pathology of astrocytes and their putative roles in human CNS senescence and diverse neurodegenerative stipulations are lined in substantial aspect. III. Experimental types of Astrocyte Senescence: Implications for Neurodegenerative ! affliction. during this ultimate part, experimental techniques to the delineation of the function of astroglia in mind getting older and degeneration are defined. This booklet may still charm greatly to uncomplicated neuroscientists attracted to a variety of elements of the biology of those cells in addition to to clinically-oriented investigators enthusiastic about the pathogenesis of the main human neurodegenerative issues.

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188 Infection of mice with the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (MHVJHM) leads within several weeks of infection to a demyelinating encephalomyelitis disease associated with prominent astrogliosis and infiltration of inflammatory cells. 189 These data also show that, by analogy to the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis, astrocytes are a major cellular source for these cytokines in mice with chronic MHVJHM infection and the findings are consistent with a role of astrocyte-derived cytokines and nitric oxide in the demyelinating process.

62. Farinelli SE, Nicklas WJ. Glutamate metabolism in rat cortical astrocyte cultures. J Neurochem 1992; 58:1905-1915. 63. Shank RP, Leo GC, Zielke HR. Cerebral metabolic compartmentation as revealed by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of D-[1- 13 C]glucose metabolism. J Neurochem 1993; 61:315-323. 64. Aas J, Berg-Johnson J, Hegstead E et al. Redistribution of glutamate and glutamine in slices of human neocortex exposed to combined hypoxia and glucose deprivation in vitro. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1993; 13:503-515.

This isolates the brain from the blood and also negates the oncotic and osmotic forces that govern blood-tissue exchange elsewhere in peripheral tissues. 140 In the absence of specific carriers a substance’s permeability is largely dependent upon its lipophilicity. Certain molecules needed for brain metabolism, however, penetrate the BBB more readily than one would predict based on their lipid solubility alone, and such substances cross the barrier on specific carriers. 143 For example, the carriers for the essential neutral amino acids, which are required in the brain for neurotransmitter synthesis, are localized on both luminal and abluminal membranes.

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