By Guozhong Cao, C. Jeffrey Brinker
The 1st quantity in an exhilarating new sequence, "Annual evaluate of Nano Research", this ambitious selection of evaluation articles sees well known members from 8 diversified international locations take on the latest advances in nanofabrication, nanomaterials and nanostructures. The extensive assurance of themes in nanotechnology and nanoscience additionally incorporates a particular concentrate on the new subject of biomedical purposes of nanomaterials. the $64000 names contributing to the quantity comprise: M R Bockstaller (USA), L Duclaux (France), S Forster (Germany), W Fritzsche (Germany), L Jiang (China), C Lopez (Spain), W J Parak (Germany), B Samori (Italy), U S Schubert (The Netherlands), S Shinkai (Japan), A Stein (USA), S M Hou (China), and Y N Xia (USA). the quantity serves either as a convenient reference for specialists lively within the box and as a very good creation to scientists whose services lies in different places yet who're attracted to studying approximately this state-of-the-art study sector.
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Additional resources for Annual review of nano research Volume 1
G. as infrared phosphors. There remain some unanswered questions, especially in terms of some intriguing temperature dependence of the up-converted luminescence . It was found that the up-conversion luminescence of ZnS:Mn nanoparticles first decreases and then increases with increasing temperature. This is in contrast to bulk ZnS:Mn in which the luminescence intensity decreases monotonically with increasing temperature due to increasing electronphonon interaction. The increase in luminescence intensity with increasing temperature for nanoparticles was attributed tentatively to involvement of surface trap states.
Similar technique has been used for CdS nanoparticles for which the β-value per particle (4 nm mean diameter) was found to be on the order of 10-27 esu, which is quite high for solution species . Second harmonic generation has also been observed for magnetic cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) colloidal particles when oriented with a magnetic field . The nonlinear optical properties of nanoparticles are found to be strongly influenced by the surface. As discussed earlier, the optical properties of isolated nanoparticles can be very different from those of assembled nanoparticle films.
The comparisons can be subtle and require careful attention when different sized or shaped nanoparticles are considered. This is partly because there are several factors, some competing, that need to be accounted for while making a comparison . For example, when particles of different sizes but the same number of excitons per particle are compared, the smaller particles show a stronger non-linear effect or, conversely, a lower excitation threshold for observing the non-linear process. This is because smaller particles have stronger spatial confinement and lower density of states per particle that both facilitate exciton-exciton annihilation.