By Walter Maechtle
This booklet is split into chapters protecting instrumentation, sedimentation pace runs, density gradient runs, software examples and destiny advancements. specifically, the unique program bankruptcy demonstrates the flexibility and tool of AUC via many fascinating and critical business examples. hence the e-book concentrates on functional points instead of information of centrifugation idea.
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Extra resources for Analytical Ultracentrifugation of Polymers and Nanoparticles (Springer Laboratory)
11] inside a Model E (reprinted with permission from ) 40 2 Analytical Ultracentrifugation, Instrumentation reﬂectance  or in transmission mode  by a PM tube. A ﬁlter is used in front of the photomultiplier to ensure that only ﬂuorescence light passes and excitation light is omitted. Riesner et al. described the ﬁrst ﬂuorescence detector adapted to an AUC . They used the geometry of the Schlieren optics channel of a Model E (see Fig. 11), and replaced the Model E components of the Schlieren optics by the components of the ﬂuorescence detector.
Even steepest refractive index gradients (resulting often from steep density gradients) can be followed because these gradients can be compensated via wedge windows (as will be shown in Chap. 4, density gradients are among the most important experiments in AUC). The modiﬁcation of the preparative Optima XL centrifuge itself, especially the addition of a Schlieren optical system, has been outlined in Sect. 2. In this paragraph, only the necessary optical components will therefore be described.
4: the determination of particle densities in AUC density gradients. The use of a pycnometer is also possible, but tedious. Furthermore, a classical method to determine solution densities is the use of calibrated sinkers/ﬂoaters that make use of the Archimedes principle. Edelstein and Schachman  determined for special cases the partial speciﬁc volume by variation of solvents. They measured the product M(1 − ν¯ · ρs ), called the effective molar mass, in different solvents with varying known densities, such as H2 O and D2 O, using equilibrium runs (see Chap.