An Experiment to Measure Relative Variations in the One-Way by Torr Kolen

By Torr Kolen

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NN, show that the transmitted ray is parallel to the incident ray. If Bm is the angle of the ray in the mth layer, show that nm sin Om == sin 0, m = 1 , 2, . . Lens in Water. 5. What is the focal length when the lens is immersed in water (n = �) ? Numerical Aperture of a Cladless Fiber. 46 and the cladding is stripped out (replaced with air n2 � 1). Fiber Coupling Spheres. Tiny glass balls are often used as lenses to couple light into and out of optical fibers. The fiber end is located at a distance f from the sphere.

Welford, Optics, Oxford University Press, 1 976, 3rd ed. 1 988. R. W. Wood, Physical Optics, Macmillan, 3rd ed. 1 934; Optical Society of America, 1 988. M. V. Klein and T. E. Furtak, Optics, Wiley, 1 982, 2nd ed. 1 986. E. W. Marchand, Gradient-Index Optics, Academic Press, 1 978. F. P. Carlson, Introduction to Applied Optics for Engineers, Academic Press, 1 977. R. W. Ditchburn, Light, Academic Press, 3rd ed. 1 976. E. Hecht, Schaum 's Outline of Optics, McGraw-Hill, paperback ed. 1 974. B. B.

P is then imaginary and the solution is a hyperbolic function (cosh or sinh), which increases without bound, as illustrated in Fig . 4-6(a). A harmonic solution ensures that Ym is bounded for all m, with a maximum value of Ymax · The bound lbl < 1 therefore provides a condition of stability (boundedness) of the ray trajectory. 4-2 1 ) and trigonometric identities. p1 are determined by the initial conditions. The maximum angle Bmax must be sufficiently small so that the paraxial sponding to == approximation, which underlies this analysis, is applicable.

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