By Alene Moyer
This paintings severely addresses the age debate in moment language acquisition reviews, featuring an in-depth examine of things that expect international accessory. Quantitative and qualitative analyses verify that cognitive, social, and mental components give a contribution to attainment, and that organic impacts needs to for that reason be thought of along those crucial facets of learner event.
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Additional info for Age, Accent and Experience in Second Language Acquisition: An Integrated Approach to Critical Period Inquiry (Second Language Acquisition (Buffalo, N.Y.), 7.)
Therefore, it is unclear whether prior discrimination training is helpful for accurate production (this is looked at later in the chapter). One thing should be noted regarding tests of production accuracy: the task itself may impact on performance. Read-aloud elicitation tasks may indicate greater attention to phonetic accuracy than free response items that inherently provide meaningful context (and a presumed greater focus on meaning). Tarone (1982) and Dickerson (1975) both conclude that target-like production of phones is more likely on isolated tasks.
Looking forward, a unified approach for effective phonological training is not likely until we know which techniques are most helpful, and where in the instructional sequence they will be most efficacious. Summary of cognitive and instructional issues Several issues remain controversial in the literature on cognitive processes and universal influences in SLA. First, it is clear that learning relies on previous knowledge and that overt instruction may guide the learner to attend to the salient properties and distinctions in the input (Tomlin & Villa, 1994).
Bialystok, 1994: 162) Some of the more interesting research in this tradition has investigated individual learning styles, awareness and attention, and the differential impact of new versus familiar forms, while questioning such assumptions as the efficacy of instruction and self-monitoring, and whether transfer is necessarily detrimental (something to be avoided) or a natural by-product of learning (Bialystok, 1994; Ellis, 1994; Ellis & Sinclair, 1996; Faerch & Kasper, 1987; Felix, 1981, 1985; Hulstijn, 1987; Kellerman, 1983; O’Malley & Chamot, 1990; Oxford, 1990 – for discussions, see Gass & Selinker, 2001).