By Marcel Erdal
Outdated Turkic is the earliest, without delay attested Turkic language. This unique paintings describes the grammar of previous Turkic. The language is documented in inscriptions within the 'runic' script in Mongolia and the Yenisey basin, from the 7th to the 10th century; in Uygur manuscripts from chinese language Turkestan in Uygur, and in runic and different scripts (comprising spiritual – regularly Buddhist –, felony, literary, clinical, folkloric, astrological and private material), from the 9th to the 13th century; and in eleventh-century Qarakhanid texts, typically in Arabic writing. All features of previous Turkic are handled: phonology, subphonemic phenomena and morphophonology, and how those are mirrored within the a variety of scripts, derivational and inflectional morphology, grammatical different types, observe periods, syntax, textual and extra-textual reference and different technique of coherence, lexical fields, discourse varieties, phrasing in addition to stylistic, dialect and diachronic edition.
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Additional resources for A Grammar of Old Turkic
M. Š. G. Kondrat’ev (1961 on the function of the form in -dOk in runiform sources) and Šukurov (1965 on the form in -gAlIr). Axmetov 1969, finally, deals with the whole verbal system of the runiform inscriptions. All this work, we find, is related to morphology and grammatical categories. Then we have Ajdarov 1969 on auxiliary words in the Orkhon inscriptions. Borovkova 1966 broached a phonological topic with her paper on the labial consonants in Qarakhanid Turkic. Scientific discussions taking place in the West were, in those years, mainly concerned with vowels.
Tekin 1985 and Zieme 1992 deal with postpositions; the former paper is about üzä, in which the author finds the dative-locative suffix +A to which he returns (again) in 1996a. Barutçu 1992 deals with the elements kaltï and nälök, both of pronominal origin and signifying ‘how’, which have very different functions. Moerlose 1986 is about the manifold functions of the element ulatï, which is hard to assign to a part of speech; it is a conjunction only in some of its uses. Erdal 1991a deals with the Orkhon Turkic pragmatic particle gU, found also in some modern Turkic languages and in Mongolic.
Six fascicles have until now appeared of Röhrborn 1977-1998 (the UW), the most recent Old Turkic dictionary. It has, to date, only covered one letter and a half, but is highly dependable, exhaustive as far as Uygur is concerned44 and valuable also because the numerous passages quoted for context are reinterpretations reflecting present understanding. The OTWF, finally, can also serve for lexical documentation, mostly of derived lexemes. The Old Turkic lexicon is, then, still incompletely accessible in dictionary form, although the situation is vastly better in this domain than (hitherto) with the grammar.